It is the cache of http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jnw/article/view/3677. It is a snapshot of the page. The current page could have changed in the meantime.
Tip: To quickly find your search term on this page, press Ctrl+F or ⌘-F (Mac) and use the find bar.

Video Watermarking Robust Against Spatio-Temporal Attacks | BI | Journal of Networks
Journal of Networks, Vol 6, No 6 (2011), 932-936, Jun 2011
doi:10.4304/jnw.6.6.932-936

Video Watermarking Robust Against Spatio-Temporal Attacks

Hongbo BI, Yubo ZHANG, Xueming LI

Abstract


Space-time interest points (STIP) represent the significant variations in video, which do not alter greatly under spatial and temporal attacks and can enhance the robustness of video watermarking. In this paper, a novel video watermarking scheme exploiting STIP in DCT-SVD (Discrete Cosine Transform – Singular Value Decomposition) domain is proposed. Unlike the usual algorithm, STIP are selected by global and local steps. All global STIP are ordered in ascending order according to their response values, and STIP corresponding to the first several global response values are selected to maintain the stability. Afterwards, the STIP with largest local response value in one frame is selected as the center to generate square embedding region. The region is transformed into DCT-SVD domain, and the mid-frequency coefficients are segmented to embed the watermark by modifying the norm of the largest singular value using quantization. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme guarantees high peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and is very robust against frame swapping, frame insert, frame dropping, noising, filtering etc.


Keywords


video watermarking, Discrete Cosine Transform, Singular Value Decomposition, Space-Time Interest Points

References


[1] Geert Willems, Tinne Tuytelaars, Luc Van Gool. An efficient dense and scale-invariant spatio-temporal interest point detector. 10th European Conference on Computer Vision, 2008, 650-663.

[2] Hongbo BI, Xueming LI, Yubo ZHANG, Yan XU. A Blind Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on CT and SVD, 10th International Conference on Signal Processing, 2010.

[3] Yulin Wang, Alan Pearmain. Blind MPEG-2 Video Watermarking Robust Against Geometric Attacks: A Set of Approaches in DCT Domain [J]. IEEE TRANSACTION ON IMAGE PROCESSING, 2006, vol.15, no.6, pp: 1536-1543.

[4] Hui Chen, Zhenyong Chen, Xiao Zeng, Wei Fan, Zhang Xiong. A Novel Reversible Semi-fragile Watermarking Algorithm of MPEG-4 Video for Content Authentication. Second International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application, 2008, 37-41.
doi:10.1109/IITA.2008.451

[5] Jing Zhang, Anthony T. S. Ho, Gang Qiu, Pina Marziliano. Robust Video Watermarking of H.264/AVC [J]. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, 2007, vol.54, no.2, pp: 205-209.
doi:10.1109/TCSII.2006.886247

[6] Pik Wah Chan, Michael R. Lyu, Roland T. Chin. A Novel Scheme for Hybrid Digital Video Watermarking: Approach, Evaluation and Experimentation [J]. IEEE TRANSACTION ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, 2005, vol.15, no.12, pp: 1638-1649.

[7] ZHUANG Huai-yu LI Ying, WU Cheng-ke. A Blind Spatial-temporal Algorithm Based on 3D Wavelet for Video Watermarking. 2004 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), 1727-1730.

[8] Young-Yoon Lee, Sang-Uk Park, Chang-Su Kim, Sang-Uk, Lee. Temporal Feature Modulation for Video Watermarking [J]. IEEE TRANSACTION ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEM FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, 2009, vol.19, no.4, 603-608.

[9] JING Li, XIAO Hui-min. Robust image watermarking method in wavelet domain based on SIFT features [J]. Application Research of Computers, 2009, vol.26, no.2, pp: 766-774.

[10] LI Chuan-mu, HONG Lian-xi, WAN Chun. An image watermarking scheme robust to geometric distortion based on SIFT feature [J]. Journal of Optoelectronics Laser, 2009, vol.20, no.6, pp: 802-806.

[11] Leida Li, Baolong Guo, Jeng-Shyang Pan. Robust image watermarking using feature based local invariant regions [J]. International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 2008, vol.4, no.8, pp:1977-1986.

[12] YANG Xiaoyuan, NIU Ke, WEI Ping, WANG Yumin. A Video Watermark Scheme Resistant to Geometric Attacks, Computer Engineering, 2007, vol.33, no.8, pp: 142-144.

[13] Leida Li, Baolong Guo, Jeng-Shyang Pan. Video watermarking by space-time interest points [J]. IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals on of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, 2008, vol. E91 - A, no.8, pp: 2252-2256.

[14] W. A. Förstner and E. Gülch. A fast operator for detection and precise location of distinct points, corners and centers of circular features. In ISPRS, 1987.

[15] C. Harris and M.J. Stephens. A combined corner and edge detector. In Alvey Vision Conference, 1998, 147-152.

[16] LOWE D G. Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints [J]. Int. J. Computer Vision, 2004, 60(2): 63-86.

[17] P. Dollar, V. Rabaud, G. Cottrell, and S. Belongie. Behavior recognition via sparse spatio-temporal features. In VS-PETS, 2005.

[18] P. Scovanner, S. Ali, and M. Shah. A 3-dimensional SIFT descriptor and its application to action recognition. In ACM International Conference on Multimedia, 2007, 357-360.

[19] D. Ni, Y. Chui, Y. Qu, X. Yang, J. Qin, T.Wong, S. Ho, and P. Heng. Reconstruction of volumetric ultrasound panorama based on improved 3D SIFT [J]. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 2009, vol.33, no.7, pp: 559–566.
doi:10.1016/j.compmedimag.2009.05.006
PMid:19524403

[20] Greg Flitton, Toby P. Breckon, Najla Megherbi. Object Recognition using 3D SIFT in Complex CT Volumes. BMVC 2010, 1-12.

[21] Ivan Laptev, Tony Lindeberg. Interest point detection and scale selection in space-time. Scale-Space’03, 2003, vol.2695, pp: 372–387.

[22] Ivan Laptev, Tony Lindeberg. Space-time Interest Points. Proceedings of the Ninth IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV’03), 2003.

[23] DENG Cheng, GAO Xin-bo. Geometrically Robust Image Watermarking Based on SIFT Feature Regions [J]. ACTA PHOTONICA SINICA, 2009, vol.38, no.4, pp: 1005-1010.


Full Text: PDF


Journal of Networks (JNW, ISSN 1796-2056)

Copyright @ 2006-2014 by ACADEMY PUBLISHER – All rights reserved.